Diabetes Mellitus is a condition that weakens the body’s ability to process blood glucose also called Blood sugar. Diabetes is a Greek word meaning “siphon” (to pass through) and Mellitus is a Latin term meaning “sweet or honeyed”. So jointly refers excess Blood sugar present which passes through urine.
What is Diabetes?
When the food you take gets digested, as a result, energy is produced. The main source of energy comes from Blood Glucose. Our Blood carries glucose to all organs for the supply of energy. This whole process of supplying blood glucose is managed by a hormone called Insulin in the pancreas. At times, enough insulin needed is not made or even no insulin is generated. This causes Blood glucose to stay and it cant reach the cells. This accumulation of glucose in your blood at a period of time causes health problems, we call Diabetes mellitus. This condition leads to abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates which results in a spiking level of blood glucose. It has become a common health condition faced by millions. In some cases, Diabetes is called a “touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes”. It refers people have a small change in Blood glucose level which is a less serious case. But each case of Diabetes is serious.
Diabetes in India
In India, the population is more than 1000 million. With this high level of the population (IGT)Impaired Glucose tolerance has become a mounting problem. Over 30 million people are diagnosed with Diabetes. The CPR( Crude prevalence rate) lies around 9 percentage in the urban areas and around 8 percentage in the rural areas.
Types of Diabetes
The common types are
- Type 1
- Type 2
- Gestational diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
It is also called “Juvenile diabetes”, which is usually diagnosed with children and young people. In this condition, your immune system destroys beta cells in your pancreas. This beta-cell produces Insulin in the pancreas. There is also a condition called secondary diabetes in which some other disease or external factors damages the Pancreas, rather than the immune system.
Signs and Symptoms
Type 1 Diabetes symptoms are subtle and it becomes severe at a period of time. Some of the symptoms are:
- Extreme thirst
- Increased hunger even after completing the meal
- Frequent urination
- Stomach upset and vomiting
- Blurry vision
- Unexplained weight loss
- Frequent urinary infection and skin issues
Some symptoms are to be taken as an emergency situation like shaking, feeling unconscious, rapid breathing, belly pain, fruity smell to your breath. Overtime high glucose levels in the blood can damage blood vessels in the eyes, kidney, and heart. You become more prone to hardened arteries or atherosclerosis which can cause heart attack and strokes.
Type 2 Diabetes
It is also referred to as “adult-onset diabetes”, as middle-aged or older people likely to get this condition. It is a life long disease in which the people become insulin resistant. It can also affect kids and teens because of childhood obesity.
The reason behind Type 2 Diabetes
The pancreas produces a hormone called insulin. This Insulin turns your Blood glucose, a type of sugar, which comes from food intake into energy. People with type 2 diabetes have insulin, but their cells don’t use it and result in Blood glucose accumulation. The common reasons for Type 2 diabetes are
Genes: Scientists have found that different combinations of DNA can make your body insulin resistant.
Obesity: If you gain too much weight around waist and abdomen area you are likely to get Type 2 Diabetes.
Metabolic syndrome: People with high cholesterol and Blood pressure gets a group condition with High blood sugar level.
Too much Glucose: When Blood sugar gets slow, the Liver balances it by sending some. But some people’s liver keeps cranking out sugar.
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms of Type 2 are mild, that most of the people don’t notice it. The common symptoms are:
- Being thirsty
- Peeing a lot
- Blurry vision
- Wounds that don’t heal
- Reoccurring yeast infection
- Weight loss without trying
It is developed in some woman when they are pregnant. Mostly it goes away after the delivery of the baby. But it has a risk factor in developing Type 2 Diabetes later in life. Less common types of Diabetes are monogenic diabetes,(inherited form), cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.
Treatment for Diabetes
Much research is going around the world to cure Diabetes and reverse its condition. Yet there is no proper cure to reverse the condition. But it can be made into control with proper medical assistance. Treatment of Diabetes includes maintaining your Blood glucose level with the help of Medicines, exercise, and proper diet. With attention to what you eat, you can avoid frequent changes in Blood sugar level called “Seesaw effect”.